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A Look into the Human Body

by shennece
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The human body is a wonderfully successful machine. Most of this success comes from the fact that there are 11 codependent systems running at the same time. Each system is made up of distinct organs that allow it to have a unique function. Together, these systems allow you to walk around, eat food, breathe, exercise, and do anything else you choose. You may ask, how does it all work? In this series of anatomy articles we will briefly discuss each of the body systems to allow for a greater understanding of not just the anatomy of human body, but your body. To begin, let’s overview the 11 systems:

Skeletal System – bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints

Body support and internal organ protectionBones provide storage for mineralsBones act as levers for muscular action

Muscular System – muscles attached to bones

Muscles contract and shorten to allow motion (running, walking, etc.)Muscles control facial expressionMuscles allow manipulation and interaction with the environment

Integumentary System – skin, hair, nails

Protects organs from drying out, getting an infection, or receiving an injuryExcretes salts and urea from body Helps in body temperature regulation (sweating)

Lymphatic System – lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus

Cleanses blood of pathogens and other debrisHouses lymphocytes – cells that act in immune responses to protect the body from foreign substances 

Endocrine System – pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pineal glands, ovaries, testes, pancreas

Maintains internal balance (homeostasis), promotes growth and development, hormone production

Nervous System – brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors

Allows detection of external and internal changes to create a response by the muscles or glandsHelps maintain internal balance (homeostasis) by rapid transmission of electrical signals 

Reproductive Systems – males: testes, prostate gland, scrotum, penis, duct system; females: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, mammary glands, vagina

Both produce sex cells, called gametes, that aid in reproductionMen produce spermWomen produce eggsFemale anatomy provides housing for development of the fetus until birth and mammary glands provide nourishment in the form of milk for the newborn

Respiratory System – nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

Provides a continuous supply of oxygen into the blood while also removing carbon dioxideContributes to acidity or basicity of blood 

Circulatory System – heart and blood vessels

Transport system that carries substances to and from tissues for exchangeSubstances include: oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, hormones, etc.Blood is pumped through the vessels by the heartAntibodies and other proteins in the blood are involved in immune response 

Digestive System – oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines

Breaks down food to be absorbed by the blood for delivery to cells in the bodyRemoves undigested material as feces

Urinary System – kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra

Rids body of nitrogen-containing waste (urea, uric acid, ammonia) as a result of breaking down proteins and genetic materialMaintains water, acid/base balance, and electrolyte concentration of the blood

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